Contraindications to MRI
Despite the fact that MRI is a non-invasive and safe for human life and health method of examination, there are a number of contraindications.
Absolute contraindications to MRI:
- electric cardiac pacemakers, implanted cardiac defibrillators
- ferromagnetic or electronic implants in the middle ear (cochlear implants)
- fragments of metallic foreign bodies in the eye area
- implanted neurostimulators
- large metallic implants, ferromagnetic splinters in the examined area (due to severe artefacts)
- ferromagnetic foreign bodies, haemostatic clips on cerebral vessels (the risk of their shifting due to magnetic field and the development of intracerebral or subarachnoid haemorrhage)
- implanted insulin pump.
Relative contraindications to MRI:
- insulin pump (should be removed prior to examination and left outside the MR examination room);
- nonferromagnetic implants in the inner ear;
- prosthetic heart valves (in high fields, with suspected dysfunction);
- decompensated heart failure;
- early pregnancy (first three months);
- tattoos made with using dyes containing metallic compounds;
- inappropriate behaviour of the patient (psychomotor agitation, panic attack);
- alcohol and drug intoxication;
- inability to stay still during the entire MR examination (e.g. due to severe pain or inappropriate behaviour);
- the need for continuous monitoring of vital signs (ECG, blood pressure, respiratory rate) and constant resuscitation (e.g. artificial respiration).
Contraindications to contrast-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging are the same as for non-enhanced MRI.
Additional contraindications for contrast-enhanced MRI:
- Pregnancy and lactation – the contrast agent penetrates through general circulation, foetal tissue, or breast milk.
- Hypersensitivity (allergic reactions) to the contrast agent used.
* The list of contraindications to magnetic resonance imaging is based on Regulation 2 of the Order of the Ministry of Health of the Republic of Belarus No. 902 dated September 16, 2011